School Drug Searches – When are they Permitted?


Section 8 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the right to be secure from unreasonable search and seizure. Teenagers are guaranteed this right to the same extent as adults. However, to engage section 8, there must be a reasonable expectation of privacy.
What about while at school? Does a student have a reasonable expectation of privacy while within school walls? There seems to be conflicting case law suggesting that determining whether a reasonable expectation of privacy exists depends on context.

In R v Z (SM) (1998), a vice-principal search the locker of one of his student’s. There had been reports that the student likely participated in drug use. On the day of the search there were other factors that led the vice-principal to believe that the student was in possession drugs. Upon search of the student’s locker, marijuana was found. The search was deemed unconstitutional at trial and the student was acquitted. However, upon appeal, the acquittal was overturned and upon further appeal, the conviction was upheld.

In R v AM (2008) the police accepted an invitation from the high school to bring dogs into search the school for drugs despite having no knowledge of drugs and no warrant. The dogs reacted to an unattended school bag. Drugs were found inside. At trial, this evidence was excluded and the accused acquitted. This was upheld at the Court of Appeal. Lebel J for the Supreme Court of Canada found a reasonable expectation of privacy in relation to the school bag. He stated, “Students ought to be able to attend school without undue interference from the state, but subject, always, to normal school discipline.” The search in this case was abnormal.

Bonnie J explains in R v AM that the leading Canadian case on searches in schools is R. v. M. (M.R.) (1998) where it was held that “the reasonable expectation of privacy of a student in attendance at a school is certainly less than it would be in other circumstances.” Lebel J uses the authority to suggest that students are entitled to privacy even in a school environment. The important point is that the Court in M. (M.R.) refused to carve out a “school exception” to the exercise of police powers.

The contrast in fact scenarios between R v Z (SM) and R v AM indicate that school drug search are permissible, but only when reasonable. So in the unlikely event your teenager is faced with a drug charge, do not hesitate to avail the services of eminent lawyers at, Hamilton to help argue your case in court.

What Are The Side Effects OF Xarelto?


Nowadays people are able to withstand diseases and various health complications because of the advancement in the medical science. Today, you have medicines for various diseases. The diseases, which were considered as incurable, a few decades ago, have become curable these days. Many medicines are available for sale upon prescription only. You need to consult your doctor before taking any over the counter medicines. You should not blindly believe that medicines and tablets available in pharmacies are safe and effective. There are many instances, where people suffered side effects due to bad medicines.

Xarelto is a drug that is prescribed for people with irregular heartbeat or suffering from a blood clot. Xarelto is an anticoagulant that thins the blood for smooth flow into the vessels. People are advised to take this drug for prevention and treatment measures. But the recent survey reveals a scary fact that this drug can cause serious side effects, which are highly irreversible. It has been found that this drug is defective and the manufacturers are responsible for their negligence for failing to conduct enough trials and research.

Some of the side effects of this drug are uncontrolled bleeding and pain in joints and other parts of the body. Bleeding can cause in the brain, kidney and other crucial organs. Internal bleeding can be diagnosed through various scans and tests. Internal bleeding can make a person feel very tired and weak. If you are taking Xarelto and experiencing any of the symptoms, then you should consult a good doctor immediately. If you feel that you affected by consuming Xarelto drug, then you should seek a good lawyer.

What a good lawyer can do for you? He or she can help you in filing lawsuits against the drug manufacturer. You can simply check at to find out how you can get help filing a lawsuit. A good lawyer can find out how much you are affected and how the amount you are eligible to seek compensation. If you like to know how anticoagulants can prevent heart disease, you can have a look at

Many people have filed lawsuits against the manufacturer of Xarelto, so you should not wait for file your lawsuit. You have the right to seek compensation from the company that can put your health and life under trouble. In most cases, the drug manufacturers never come forward to accept their faults. They will try all their means to prevent from giving compensation to the victims. In fact, the drug companies have their big team of lawyers to work for them

By hiring a good Xarelto lawsuit lawyer, you can expect a better outcome from your case. This is because he or she will have a better understanding of medical negligence law and other related matters to offer the best solution. Before approaching a lawyer, make sure that you gather the evidence of your health problems. The evidence can include doctor reports, test reports, medical bills, etc. Lawyer use this evidence to prove you point in the court. Therefore, you do not feel reluctant to seek the service of a good lawyer, if you have been affected by Xarelto.

Smart Ways To Choose A Personal Injury Attorney


If you are in a situation where you will need a personal injury solicitor or attorney then it is vital that you choose a true expert in the field. Not all advocates or attorneys will be able to provide you with quality legal advice and brilliant representation before a court of law. It is because of this reason that the importance of choosing a really good solicitor who is a specialist in the field of personal injury law becomes manifold. In addition to this, it must also be ensured by you that that the personal injury solicitor that you choose has proper academic qualification as a personal injury lawyer.

In order to find out about the personal injury lawyers in Myrtle Beach, you can perform an online search on the better search engines such as Bing, Google and Yahoo. You will need to use the most apt search words for this purpose. Ideally your search words in order to get good results should be ‘accident lawyer Myrtle Beach’. You should also ensure that the attorney that you hire has a lot of experience practicing law. You must also see to it that the lawyer’s law practice has been specialized. If this is not the case then that particular lawyer’s knowledge and expertise will not be valuable.

The reason for this is that in case the practice is not specialized then his knowledge will be in different areas of law practice. This, in turn, translates into a lack of expertise in the field of the laws related to personal injury and the claims in case of personal injuries and accidents. So, please do not hire a lawyer of this type. Specialized skill is what you should ideally look for in case you want to ensure that you get proper and quality representation before a court of law. A good personal injury attorney who has years of experience will also be very familiar with negotiations outside the court.

It will be a very good situation for you in case the attorney that you hire is adept at both the crucial facets of personal injury litigation, i.e., courtroom trials and negotiations. There is a high probability that the lawyers who have accreditations from the authorized associations of lawyers in the field of personal injury law will be able to do them both. So, in your search for the right personal injury solicitor you should try and find out if a probable candidate has the desired accreditation from the right authority or association.

It will be an even better situation for you if your chosen lawyer is a member of associations like Association of Personal Injury Lawyers popularly called APIL. It will not be wrong to say that those personal injury lawyers who have accreditations from organizations like these are better than the rest of the lot in a number of ways. You may find out about all the accredited APIL lawyers in your area by a simple online search. Please be smart and wise in your choice.